The ratio between the number of males and females in a society is referred to as the gender ratio. This ratio is not stable but instead shaped by biological, social, technological, cultural, and economic forces. And in turn the gender ratio itself has an impact on society, demography, and the economy. In this entry we provide an overview of the variation and the changes of the gender ratio across the world.
Boys versus girls - the single-sex school battle of the sexes
Sex and gender: What makes a person a boy or a girl?
You can think about genes as an instruction code and hormones as chemical messages. In terms of genes, most people have 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes are large groups of genes. Two of the chromosomes, the X and the Y, are called sex chromosomes.
Fewer differences between boys and girls at school
Interactions between males and females often display a power imbalance. Men tend to adopt more dominant physical postures, lead conversations more, and are more likely to impose their will on women than vice versa. Furthermore, social representations typically associate males with a higher power than females. However, little is known about how those representations emerge in early childhood.
Boys and girls act differently at school. They tend to opt for different subject combinations and courses of study. In addition, boys tend to lag behind girls in terms of achievement.