Though poor choices, of course, are the prerogative — if not the main purpose — of a misspent youth. And at 23, Edie hardly sees an adulthood to look forward to: Her Bushwick apartment is a grim haven for wayward mice, her job in publishing is both unchallenging and underpaid, and the art career she vaguely dreams of no more likely than the prospect of a genuine friend. And so she tends to lean on sex with co-workers, or the men she meets online — men like Eric, a married white archivist twice her age with a predilection for whiskey and punching her in the face. So how does Edie end up living under the same roof as his wife and adopted daughter, the only other girl in their small New Jersey town who seems to share her skin tone? By almost any metric, Edie is a mess: damaged, adrift, a maestro of self-sabotage. You want to shake her sometimes, or just wrap her in a warm blanket and tell her to go home.
Raven food calls indicate sender’s age and sex
Raven food calls indicate sender's age and sex. - Abstract - Europe PMC
Common ravens Corvus corax use food associated 'haa' calls to recruit other individuals of the same species conspecifics to food foraging sites which may be dangerous because of predators or territorial breeding pairs. These calls provide clues about the age and sex of the caller, according to a study published in the open access journal Frontiers in Zoology. Researchers at the University of Vienna and the University of Cambridge found that vocal signals emitted by ravens to alert conspecifics to feeding sites varied in frequency, call duration and amplitude, according to their age and sex. These differences may enable ravens to extract information about the caller and use this knowledge to aid in decision-making processes. However, to our knowledge, no experiments have tested for features in food calls that might provide ravens with information about unknown individuals. Thus, we show for the first time that ravens can potentially use food calls to tell other ravens apart, according to these categories. This gives ravens the opportunity to use information about the caller in decision making processes, such as whether to join or avoid foraging groups.
Raven food calls indicate sender's age and sex.
Metrics details. Acoustic parameters of animal signals have been shown to correlate with various phenotypic characteristics of the sender. One of the most demanding capacities is individual recognition, achievable only after repeated interactions with the same individual. Still, class-level recognition might be potentially important to perceivers who have not previously encountered callers but can classify unknown individuals according to the already learned categories. Especially for species with high fission-fusion dynamics that repeatedly encounter unknown individuals it may be advantageous to develop class-level recognition.
Common ravens are one of the most widespread, naturally occurring birds worldwide. They are found in northern Europe, the British Isles, Greenland mainly coastal areas , Iceland, northern Scandinavia, east through central Asia to the Pacific Ocean and south to the Himalayas and northwestern India, Iranian region and near east, northwestern Africa and the Canary Islands, and North and Central America as far south as Nicaragua. Boarman and Heinrich,